Finally, GhostDriver 1.0.0

  • webdriver • wire • protocol • features • phantomjs • python • selenium • .net • binding • next • future • opensource • release • java • lesson • roadmap • ghostdriver
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After ~10 months of work, I finally managed to push the ball forward enough to reach GhostDriver 1.0.0. I won't lie: it does feel great. It always is to see so much effort mutate into an achievement, even it is such only for me.

Before I go any further though, I owe a massive THANK-YOU to the people that through contribution and / or issue reporting have helped me to build a releasable 1.0.0. In particular to Jim Evans, an awesome guy and a bit of a mentor for me: you ROCK Jim, and I think that is true, literally!

Ghost Driver

Explaining 1.0.0

In 1.0.0 I wanted to have the right amount of Wire Protocol implemented, but still be able to deliver something stable before Christmas 2012!

So, what's in GhostDriver 1.0.0 (changelog)?

  1. Navigation
  2. Page content extraction
  3. Arbitrary JS execution
  4. Window handling
  5. Frame handling
  6. Screen-shot generation
  7. Cookies
  8. Element Search, Localization & Manipulation
  9. Mouse interaction (even though doubeClick and rightClick seems to be a bit flaky)
  10. Keyboard interaction

It's not the entire protocol yet, but it feels like a good start: I do think you can cover a lot of ground in your tests with those already.

To monitor progress, and to know in details what's there and what's not, check this spreadsheet out.

You said "explaining"...

OK. So, GhostDriver is developed as a plain PhantomJS script that makes use of basically 2 PhantomJS built-in modules:

  • require("webserver"): to receive the Wire Protocol REST commands HTTP Requests
  • require("webpage"): to execute those commands into Browser Windows (i.e. 1 webpage corresponds to 1 window)

You can download the source code from the repository (see, and launch it with the following:

$ phantomjs ghostdriver/src/main.js [LOCAL_IP:]PORT

This approach was and is for development only though: GhostDriver target, since the beginning, was to embed the driver into PhantomJS - a feature demanded since February 2011(!!!).

So, from next release of PhantomJS (1.8 should come just before Christmas) you will be able to do instead:

$ phantomjs --webdriver=[LOCAL_IP:]PORT

without the need to download anything but your favourite single-binary-headless-browser. If you are impatient though, just download latest PhantomJS master branch, compile with ./ and enjoy.


To make it easier to get started, Luke Inman-Semerau, Jim Evans and I have provided binding classes that will make even easier to get up and running with PhantomJS/GhostDriver in your Selenium/WebDriver tests. Luke is providing Python binding, Jim covers C#/.Net and I wrote the Java ones.

The next Selenium version is 2.27.0, and it's going to contain those bindings (hurray!). As I write this, David Burns is taking matters into his hands to prepare the release.

But I'm sure you want to see some code. Here is a Java snippet:

import org.openqa.selenium.phantomjs.PhantomJSDriver;

public class TestPhantomJSDriver {

    public static void main(String[] argv) {
        // prepare capabilities
        Capabilities caps = new DesiredCapabilities();
        caps.setJavascriptEnabled(true);                //< not really needed: JS enabled by default
        caps.setCapability("takesScreenshot", true);    //< yeah, GhostDriver haz screenshotz!

        // Launch driver (will take care and ownership of the phantomjs process)
        WebDriver driver = new PhantomJSDriver(caps);

        // Load
        // Locate the Search field on the Google page
        WebElement element = driver.findElement("q"));
        // Type Cheese
        String strToSearchFor = "Cheese!";
        // Submit form

        // Check results contains the term we searched for

        // done

It's also important to highlight that GhostDriver implements the standard WebDriver WireProtocol. This means that you can connect to a running instance of PhantomJS in WebDriver mode by simply using any RemoteWebDriver class available in your favourite language. No strict need to use those bindings.

Where do I get it?

Because GhostDriver is now part of PhantomJS, you can get it in the next PhantomJS binary, stable release. It should be PhantomJS 1.8, and should be out by the 21st of December (don't tell Ariya I told you that - it's still cooking :-) ).

In the meantime, as briefly mentioned above, you have to do a bit of leg work: check out latest PhantomJS master branch (from either Ariya's (official upstream) or my own (usually in sync with upstream)), and compile it (takes 30 minutes on average specs machine - much less if you have got SSD).

The nice thing is that to build this you apply the same "set-up" required to compile any PhantomJS: nothing special is required. Just follow the instructions from here if you have never compiled it before.

After 1.0.0: what's next?

There is a lot left to do. To push for 1.0.0 I had to make compromises, particularly in the number of Wire Protocol commands I had to implement. Few key ones haven't made it, but work on them it's already started (mostly in my head for now).

1.0.1: bug fixes

I plan to have a 1.0.1 to address all the immediate issues. The work for this will be limited fixing bugs though. I already got a couple of issues / comments reported and I'll act on those.

So, don't expect this release to be anything BUT bug-fixes: new stuff has to go in "at the right time" (see next).

A quick list of issues that will be address in this release:

  • Issue #123: Wait for potential "Page Load" when "" is used
  • Issue #119: Command /shutdown arrives via HTTP HEAD in some language bindings (by Jari Bakken)
  • Issue #124: Invalid response when checking element equality
  • Issue #126: Crash on get + execute_async_script

Track the work for 1.0.1 here.

1.1.0: new features

This is "the right time" to add new features. This will be about pushing towards a full, complete WireProtocol implementation. So far I have picked the following from the issue tracker:

  • Issue #108: "Timeouts default value should be INFINITE"
  • Issue #120: Improve command line interface: support for just --webdriver without parameters
  • Issue #121: Better check for command line parameter: enforce LOCAL_IP:PORT or localhost:PORT
  • Issue #20: Implement support for JavaScript Alert/Prompt/Confirm
  • Issue #84: Rewrite the Request Routing code to be more like Node.js's Express
  • Issue #57: Implement "Drag & Drop" action builder

Track the work for 1.1.0 here.

1.x: finishing up

Well, this is quite simple. I can't plan too much ahead, but the idea is to push toward 100% of the whole WireProtocol. Maybe putting on top of that some Mobile User Agent simulation, but that requires some thinking first.

Anything else?

Developing a WebDriver has been quite a journey so far, and it's not yet finished. If you listen to some of the Selenium devs, apparently will never actually end, as issues, feature requests, criticism and pure simple trolling should keep flowing. At least that should happen if this is successful.

That might turn out to be tiring (or a failure), but I don't hide that knowing this is something that few people actually want to use makes me a tiny bit proud of my self.


Before I go deep into another cycle of development though, my personal life is to regain some priority: I'm getting married in April 2013. That, as you might expect, will take time and energy. So, if you want to contribute to a small Open Source project that has some potential to be awesome, please join me and the other few awesome souls that helped me so far. And this leads me to my last thoughts and conclusions...

Lesson learned (still learning actually!)

As any small Open Source project, I need contributors. People that are willing to either write code, or kind enough to report issues in a proper and reproducible manner. One thing I had to learn is that, if I want to keep this project going, I need to be very strict in what I allow myself to get involved into.

And, worst of all, while I got a bunch of guys really supportive of this work (I'm looking at you, Selenium-ers), there is always the kind of jerk that prefers to spend time telling you why you are going to fail, instead of trying to help you contributing improvements or fixes.

Those "encounters" taught me some very useful things:

  1. Open Source it's not Democracy: You have to keep the ship sailing in the right direction
  2. Open Source it's a "doers" culture: ignore who talks and does nothing - embrace who makes things happen
  3. Lots of people ignore README files: they just don't read - but don't get too upset by it
  4. Kill unhelpful issues: they pollute the bug-tracker and lower morale, but reopen and discuss if the reporter "comes back to his senses"

I have recently started to read Team Geek, and it matches perfectly what I have experienced so far. Read it if you can!


This post was long overdue, and it took me few days to finish it up. I'm sure I could add more details here, but it's now the 4th night in a row and I want to move on.

What else can I say? Just that I hope this to be the first of other, even better releases!

Happy Driving! :)

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